get的被动用法(get-passive)

1.

今天,我看书的时候,看到了下面这句很普通的句子,"How Do We Get Started on These Programs?"。我突然感到有一点糊涂,什么叫"Get started" ?这句话同"How do we start on these programs?"又有什么区别呢?

我查了词典里关于"get+动词分词"结构的解释,发现这种常见结构其实很复杂,既可以表示主动(We Get Started on These Programs),又可以表示被动(I got invited to her party yesterday)。

下面就是我整理的笔记。

2.

首先,"get+过去分词"是一种被动形式。

我们都知道,英语中表示被动的方法是"be+过去动词",但是其实还有第二种方法,那就是"get+过去分词",这两者的意思基本上是类似的。但是,后者用得比较少,尤其少用于正式的书面文体。

请对比下面三句话:

a) The bus hit John.

b) John was hit by the bus.

c) John got hit by the bus.

上面这三种说法都是对的。被动的含义除了可以用"be + 过去分词"表示以外,还可以用"got + 过去分词"来表示。

请看下面的例句:

* It is upsetting when a person gets punished for a crime that he didn't commit.

* The picture got damaged (= was damaged) when we were moving.

* If they make such criticisms they will get treated with the contempt they deserve.

* I don't want to get mixed up with the police again.

* After working here selflessly for several years,Mr. Li got promoted at last.

* They got delayed because of the holiday traffic.

3.

"get+过去分词"和"be+过去分词"有几个区别。

(1)在"be+过去分词"的结构中,be是助动词(auxiliary),可以用来独立构成否定句和疑问句;get不是助动词,在否定句和疑问句,必须增加助动词。

请看下面的例句。

* Was Kim attacked by a tiger?

* Kim was not attacked by a tiger.

* Did Kim get attacked by a tiger?

* Kim did not get attacked by a tiger.

以上四句话都是正确,下面两句则是错误的。

* Got Kim attacked by a tiger? (×)

* Kim got not attacked by a tiger. (×)

(2)"get+过去分词"结构可以用于进行时态,"be+过去分词"结构就不行。

请看下面的例句

* You will be getting cursed.

* My brother has been getting examined

(3)"get+过去分词"结构通常不带"by+动作主体"的部分,但这不是绝对的。

请看下面两句话,其中第二句话是错误的。

* I got caught in the rain.

* I got caught by the rain. (×)

但是,在下面的例句中可以使用by:

* He got caught by the police.

* He got hit on the head by the burglar.

* Raghu got kicked in the shin by a donkey.

* He got punched in the nose by his opponent.

(4)"get+过去分词"结构极少用于无生命的物体。

请看下面两句话,其中第二句话是错误的。

* Gunfire was heard in the auditorium.

* Gunfire got heard in the auditorium.(×)

4.

除了表示被动以外,"get + 过去分词"结构还可用于谈论为自己做的事,表示主动的行为而不是被动的行为,即起到了强调主语、加重语气的作用。

请对比下面两句话:

a) Joe was dressed [by someone]

b) Joe got dressed.

a句表示其他人帮助Joe穿衣服,b句则表示Joe自己穿衣服。

除了get dressed(穿衣服)以外,类似的常用短语,还有以下这些:get divorced(离婚)、get engaged(订婚)、get confused(迷惑不解)、get lost(迷路)、get washed(洗脸) 、get married(结婚)等。

5.

为什么英语中有两种表示被动的结构?为什么"get+过去分词"结构既可以表示主动的行为,又可以表示被动的行为,它们之间是否有联系?

在普通的"be+过去分词"结构中,动作主体(subject)与动作受体(object)之间的关系一般是同等重要的。下面两个例句是完全等价的:

* Marconi invented the radio.

* The radio was invented by Marconi.

但是,"get+过去分词"结构不是这样。不管加不加动作主体,关注的重点永远是在动作的受体上。这也是,这种结构为什么通常不带"by+动作主体"的原因。(即使带了,句子的重心也依然是在前半部分。)

所以,只要使用了"get+过去分词"结构,一定是强调句子的主语的。

6.

我不清楚get used to是不是这种结构。资料中都没有提到这个短语,所以可能不是。

7.

学习了这么久,又是这么麻烦的东西,太伤脑筋了。

下面是轻松一刻,贴几张漫画。

He got hit!

I got caught.

I got lost.

We got married.

Mike got dressed for bed.

8.

[练习]

(1) I don't know how it happened, but I ____ in San Francisco.

a) was lost b) got lost

(2) That evening the Greek embassy was having a party. I ____ by a friend who worked there.

a) was invited b) got invited

(3) I had been out all day sightseeing. When I returned it was late, so I ____ quickly and left the hotel.

a) was dressed b) got dressed

(4) Fortunately, I ____ a map before I left the hotel.

a) was given b) got given

(5) As I was leaving the hotel, I almost ____ by a taxi.

a) got hit b) was hit

(6) The embassy was only a few blocks away. So I walked. Somewhere along the way, I ____ .

a) got disoriented b) was disoriented

(7) I took a wrong turn and walked the wrong direction. Finally, I hailed a taxi and ____ to the party.

a) was driven b) got driven

答案:(按下右键,拖动鼠标察看)

(1)b (2)a (3)b (4)a (5)a/b 两者都正确 (6)a (7)a


References

* http://everything2.com/index.pl?node_id=1795330

* http://www.deccanherald.com/deccanherald/dec222005/dheducation15201020051221.asp

* http://edu.sina.com.cn/en/2002-08-07/4742.html

* http://smccd.net/accounts/sevas/esl/reviewlesson/passive2.html


(阮一峰,2006年6月25日)

附:

"英语学习"系列笔记之一:前缀un-和in-